TOURNAMENT RULES & PROCEDURES
FOR TAIJIQUAN EVENTS
officially adopted by the
UNITED STATES CHINESE KUOSHU
Part 1: SOLO FORMS & WEAPONS EVENTS,
PURPOSE. These tournament rules and
evaluation procedures focus on improvement and sharing as well as on scoring
and judging, on education and communication as well as on competition and
performance. They were designed to assist in the creation of a friendly
environment within which participants and judges (herein referred to as
“evaluators”) collaborate to raise the level of play, foster a sense of
collegiality and community, and promote the classic principles and philosophy
Evaluators use a general impression or holistic method to assign scores, so
they can also focus on offering feedback to participants. This differs from
the point-deduction or atomistic method used in some tournaments. The validity
of holistic scoring is based on the ability of expert observers to reach consensus
on the comparative rank order of medal-winning performances within a
scoring, in its pure form, relies on a judge’s ability to distinguish
deviations in a performance from a normative or high-standard performance, and
to subtract point values assigned to these deviations from a “perfect” score.
Advocates of this method claim for it a certain objectivity because it is based
in specific, often minute observation. However, two judges will never notice
exactly the same things, and it is very difficult to notice enough significant
minutiae to bring a score down by tenths of a point from 10 to 7.5, for
example, in three or even five minutes. Also, there is no guarantee that this
method will actually place competitors in the rank order for medals that they
deserve. In practice, therefore, the atomistic method is often combined with
holistic elements: 4 of 10 points reserved for general impression scoring and 6
points for deduction-based scoring, for example.
purely holistic method used in these rules, evaluators assign each performance
a placement within a range of scores with room both above and below for
placement of subsequent scores. Unlike the point-deduction method, in which a
judge’s focus must inevitably be almost entirely on negatives because they
arrive at a score by reduction, holistic evaluators focus on the whole
performance: the positive aspects as well as the negative. The evaluation
sheets with their three categories of “Good,” “Adequate/Lesser Faults,” and
“Needs Work” facilitate this holistic approach.
view the performances of the first three competitors in any division before
scoring. They then meet and place those performances first, second, and third
relative to each other by consensus, and agree on an approximate score for each
performance. These three scores anchor the division. Evaluators return to
their seats and score each successive performance so as to place it in rank
order relative to all previous performances.
primary duty of an evaluator is to calibrate his/her scoring to the scoring of
the other evaluators.
Evaluators must therefore forget their own scores as soon as they give them,
record the FINAL score for each performance, and base their scores for
successive performances on the actual emerging rank order of the division.
There is no “right” score for any performance, only its comparative standing in
relation to other performances within a scoring range set by the tournament
director. The better evaluator is not one who is personally consistent, but
one who can work with other evaluators as a team to arrive at a satisfactory
rank order for an event.
OFFICIALS. Five judges (evaluators)
evaluate forms and weapons events. In addition, a chief judge manages each event,
coordinates the work of the evaluators, and announces scores. The chief judge
does not participate in scoring unless only four or fewer evaluators are
available. A scorekeeper and timekeeper sit at the head table with the chief
PROCEDURE. At the beginning of each event,
officials stand in their respective places and are introduced to spectators and
competitors by the announcer or the chief judge. All competitors enter the
performance area, are briefed by the chief judge, and seated beside the area.
The chief judge calls each competitor in turn, as follows: “[Name of competitor
A] up, [name of competitor B] on deck, [name of competitor C] prepare.”
Competitor A comes to the edge of the area, salutes the chief judge who returns
the salute and invites the competitor to take the field with an open palm
pointing to the center. Competitor A enters, and time begins at the
competitor’s first movement after wuji (the still preparation posture). Time
allotted to each participant in forms and weapons events is divided into three
parts: performance, evaluation, and scoring.
PERFORMANCE. In forms events, each
participant performs for a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 3.5 minutes. A
warning is sounded and time is announced at both times. There is a deduction
for under and overtime in open-hand events. In weapons events, each
participant performs for a minimum of 1.5 minutes, and a warning is sounded
then and at 3.5 minutes; there is a deduction for under time, but not for over
time in weapons. Competitors may face any direction to begin, and may step
outside the boundary without penalty, as long as the performance remains for
the most part within the field.
1) WRITTEN. During the
performance, evaluators put checkmarks in categories on an “Evaluation” sheet.
After all participants in an event have performed, these sheets are collected,
collated, and given to participants during the medal ceremony.
2) VERBAL. If time allows and at
the discretion of the tournament director, the evaluators meet the participant
in the center of the field immediately after the participant’s performance.
The evaluators offer feedback on the performance, with each evaluator speaking
in turn following a standard two-part format:
a) complimenting at least one
thing the participant did well (positive comment), and
b) suggesting at least one thing
the participant might improve (critique).
Comments from all evaluators must not exceed 3.5 minutes,
after which evaluators return to their seats.
SCORING. The chief judge calls for
scores, and each evaluator holds up a numerical score. High and low scores are
dropped, and the scorekeeper computes the average of the middle scores. The
final score is the average score minus any deductions made by the chief judge.
four evaluators or fewer are available, the chief judge also scores.
four or fewer are scoring, high and low scores are retained, and all scores
contribute to the average.
• In case of a tie for medals,
high and low scores are averaged back in-- or the medal will go to the
competitor whose lowest score is higher (or the next lowest score, etc.,
until the tie is broken).
judge announces either “Final Score for [name], [score]” or if there are
deductions, the chief judge says “Evaluators’ average score for [name]:
[score]” announces the deduction, then says “Final score for [name]: [score].”
The competitor then salutes the chief judge, who returns the salute.
record the final score for the performance on the bottom of the
evaluation sheet, and cross out their own score.
Posture and stance (xing: shape, configuration) are the keys to
correctness of form. Unity (whole body matching) is the key to movement.
Vigor (power) is the key to overall technical skill.
1) POSTURE & STANCE are the
main factors which determine whether the player’s forms are correct. The body
should be relaxed, the movements easy but not soft, stretched but not stiff.
The head should be lifted, the pelvis settled; the feet strongly placed, the
knees stable; the arms rounded, the shoulders lowered.
2) UNITY (integrity) is the key
to coordination. The waist must act like an axle, all body parts should
correlate, arms and legs match.
3) VIGOR (energy, spirit). The
impression of vigor reveals the player’s overall technical level. Any action,
should display lightness, agility, steadiness, calmness, and a combination of
solidity and emptiness. Movements should be smooth and continuous.
evaluator’s score represents their holistic impression of a performance based
on the above categories, in comparison to other competitors’ performances in a
division, and in relation to the scoring range. The scoring range for
U.S.C.K.F. tournaments is:
BY THE CHIEF JUDGE.
1. Time. The chief judge deducts
0.1 for a performance that is up to five seconds short of the minimum or over
the maximum required time, 0.2 for a performance that is six to ten seconds
short or over, and so forth. There is no overtime deduction for weapons
2. Re-performing. A competitor
may re-perform without penalty if the chief judge rules that the performance
was interrupted by uncontrollable circumstances. If a competitor stops for any
other reason, he/she may elect to re-perform at the end of the group, but half
a point (.5) is deducted from the final score.
3. No scores shall be given to a
competitor who leaves the field without completing their routine.
DIVISIONS. Taijiquan forms events may be
divided into categories by style as desired, such as: Chen, Yang, Guang Ping,
Other Styles, etc. They may be further subdivided into experience levels, such
as: Beginning/Intermediate (up to four years of taijiquan study is suggested
as a criterion) and Experienced (more than four years of taijiquan study is
suggested as a criterion). A “Senior” event (50 and over) might also be
useful. There should not, however, be separate divisions for men and women in
forms and weapons events.
Part 2: LIMITED STEP PUSH-HANDS EVENTS,
“CONTINUOUS FLOW FORMAT” & THE FIVE-POINT MUST
PURPOSE. These rules are designed to
produce a continuous exchange of discernible techniques, with an emphasis on
matching: the appropriate alternation of yielding and adherence to demonstrate
that “a force no greater than four ounces may neutralize a thousand pounds.”
This interaction should be clearly distinguishable from wrestling, shoving, and
DISCUSSION. Push-hands events are exhibitions that give
spectators perhaps their first impression of taijiquan as a martial art, as
well as competitions that determine the relative skill levels of the
participants. Push-hands events are not intended to be simulations of real-world
combat; they are games which are won by players who can apply taiji principles
within limits set by the rules.
of this method is to discourage interactions that do not exemplify skills
characteristic of taijiquan and to reward those that do, including:
• unbalancing an opponent with finesse rather than
• applying force into vulnerable places (na) and
not against resistance,
• disrupting an opponent’s equilibrium rather than just
causing an opponent to move
forward, backward, or sideways,
• neutralizing (hua) or evading an incoming force
and redirecting (returning) it.
skills can be classified under the general category of “effective subtlety.”
In close rounds, judges may also take into consideration “positive control:”
the impression of which competitor seems to be responsible for the best aspects
of the match, and “postural dynamics” that give the impression of
rooting, coordination, and active listening (e.g., head up? hips, waist, and
torso active? arms give the impression of responsiveness and positive shape? steps
well-timed?). Theoretically, these three categories are weighted equally, but
in practice “effective subtlety” is given the most emphasis with the other two
entering into the judges’ consideration only in very close or “even” matches.
method of judging push-hands is based on methods currently used to judge
professional boxing. Though both are inherently subjective, they are grounded
in expert observation: push-hands judges are teachers with many years of
experience in taijiquan in addition to having undergone specialized training in
OFFICIALS. The event staff consists of 1
referee, 3 judges, 1 scorekeeper, and 1 timekeeper.
• The referee is responsible for
starting and stopping the action, ensuring that all rules are followed,
maintaining standards of safety, calling violations, asking for consensus from
judges on calls, instructing the scorekeeper and timekeeper during the action,
announcing the winner of each match, and instructing competitors and the
audience in the goals and mechanics of this method of tournament push-hands
• The judges are responsible for
deciding the winner of each round, basing their decision on the total marks
recorded on their “tally” (see below) for that round. They may also call
“stop” for violations they observe except for “flagrant force,” which can only
be called by the referee.
• The scorekeeper records
official warnings given to each player in each round as instructed by the
referee, records the points judges award each player in each round, calculates
and announces the total for each player in each round, and calculates and
announces grand totals for each player after two rounds.
• The timekeeper times each
round, stopping time whenever the referee calls “stop,” resumes timing on the
referee’s signal, and rings a bell or blows a whistle to announce the end of
FIELD. In limited step events, the
area of play, or field, is an alley 4 feet wide and 10 feet long, with sides marked
by tape, but with no tape at the ends. The center of this alley will be marked
by a cross (“center mark”) of two 2-foot pieces of tape, oriented so that one
piece is perpendicular to the sides, and one piece is on the center of the
alley and parallel to the sides. Within this alley, single shuffle steps are
permitted, initiated by either the front or rear foot and followed by the
opposite foot. Single shuffle steps must be separated by at least a two
second interval. Competitors must keep to the orientation of the alley; they
may not step outside the alley to defend or to gain an advantage.
ELIGIBILITY. To be eligible to participate
in push-hands events, competitors must:
• have been studying
taijiquan for at least one year;
• have competed in a taijiquan form event either in the current
year or a previous year at this or another tournament.
EQUIPMENT. Participants wear a T-shirt,
martial arts pants, and athletic or kung fu shoes. No long sleeved shirts or
short pants are permitted. Contestants may not wear any objects (including
jewelry) that may cause injury to themselves or their opponents. Fingernails
must be clipped to within a sixteenth of an inch, and will be inspected by the
officials. The tournament will provide competitors with solid-color shirts or
tank tops of contrasting colors to be worn over their own t-shirts.
TALLIES. Judges keep a scorecard or
“tally” on which they record significant interactions. Tally marks are
objective notations of subjective observations. The quantity of marks will
vary among the judges, depending on what they observe and record, but judges
are expected to record as many interactions as possible, and MUST base their
decision of who won each round on the total marks recorded for that round.
Judges should discuss tallying in advance, and agree on visual cues that
indicate whether actions should receive positive or negative tally marks.
Positive Marks. Marks are NOT awarded for off-balancing an opponent per
se. Judges must not simply make a mark for each “off balance” and award the
match to the competitor with the highest total. Judges must keep in mind that
push-hands is not really about pushing: a skillful taijiquan attack is not
based on strength or speed, yet it is easy for these to masquerade as superior
if we were only rewarding instances where a competitor is made to lose balance.
Judges must ask themselves if the
technique which caused
an off-balance utilized taijiquan
competitor lead his/her opponent to emptiness? Did it seem relatively
effortless? Was the opponent’s force neutralized before the off-balance, or
was force used against force? Further, off-balancing is not simply causing an
opponent to reset their stance: to count as a successful attack, an off-balance
must shake up an opponent’s structure in a way that requires the opponent to
regain equilibrium as well as to reestablish stance. Judges must also be alert
for defensive techniques-- frequently harder to see than offensive ones.
Negative Marks. Judges may make negative marks on their tallies based
on visual cues that generally indicate when inappropriate or flagrant force is
being used. For example, a competitor who leans on his/her opponent in a
posture that would not be stable if the opponent were not being used for
support is bracing or “steepleing,” and should receive a negative mark.
(wrapping a hand around behind an opponent’s back) is a prelude to throwing and
should be negatively noted. It is legitimate, however, to push on an opponent’s
back if the opponent’s back is exposed. It is also legitimate to stick a hand
behind an opponent without hooking it. Hauling, an obvious use of
greater force against a stable opponent, should be noted negatively. Use of hard
shoving, while legitimate in combat taijiquan, have no place within these
limited events, and should receive negative marks. Judges should also give a
negative mark to a limited step competitor who retreats excessively, so
as to lose contact with the opponent.
EXCHANGES. For tallying purposes, an
“exchange” begins with an intentional use of force, and ends when that force is
neutralized or evaded without being redirected or when either competitor
loses equilibrium. Judges must be alert for three kinds of action:
1) appropriate use of force,
2) inappropriate use of force, and
3) flagrant use of force.
addition, judges must watch for three kinds of reaction:
1) loss of equilibrium,
2) neutralization or evasion, and
3) redirection-- a combination of
neutralization and the application of an appropriate force that causes the
opponent to lose equilibrium.
exchange holds the potential for a single player to gain one to four positive
marks on a judge’s tally. Competitors may receive equal marks for an exchange
(cells b and d in the table below), which cancel out. Appropriate force has a
value of +1. Inappropriate force has a zero (0) value. Flagrant force has a
value of –1. Instances of force that judges deem excessive but which are not
called “flagrant” by the referee should be scored as “inappropriate.”
and evasions have a value of +1. Loss of equilibrium has a value of zero (0)
when caused by flagrant force or inappropriate force, and a value of –1 when
caused by appropriate force.
A loses equilibrium
A = +2
B = +2
A uses inappropriate force
B = +1
B = +3
B = +1
B = +2
B = +4
chart above, cell (c) is essentially the same as (a). Cell (f) is a
combination of cells (c) and (e), and cell (i) is a combination of cells (c)
and (h). This chart may seem daunting, but in practice, marking tallies using
this method is quite easy. The use of three judges allows for triangulation,
and the five point must system, described below, converts the accumulated tally
marks into a simple decision for winner and loser.
— a horizontal “minus”
line, “X” or “F” (for flagrant force) may be used to indicate a mark against a
competitor if a judge is marking negatives;
1 a vertical hashmark,
number one, checkmark, “N” for neutralization may be used to indicate a
positive mark for a competitor;
2 “2” may be used as a
shortcut for two hashmarks, or for “plus for one and minus for the other,”
counted for the competitor receiving the positive mark. (“3” and “4” may also
1. PRELIMINARIES. The referee
assures that all competitors’ clothing, jewelry, equipment, and nails conform
to tournament guidelines, and instructs them in the procedure of the
2. RANKING. The referee assigns
a numerical rank to each competitor in a division and gives each competitor a
tag with the number of their rank on it. Competitors turn these tags in to the
scorekeeper, who records their names in the correct spaces on a bye chart (see
“Push-Hands Bye Chart & Event Report” and “Setting Up a Bye Chart” appended
to these rules).
Rank competitors within divisions
based on the following criteria in order:
1. Top rank (#1) is given to last
year’s champion, or another medal winner, from this tournament.
2. Gold, Silver, Bronze medal
winners in other tournaments in that order, or number of medals won.
3. Those with the most tournament
If the above criteria are not
sufficient to rank all competitors, then:
4. Those with the greater number
of years experience in taijiquan.
If the above criteria are not
sufficient to rank all competitors, then:
5. Heaviest/tallest in their
Even if lower ranks (#5, #6, #7, etc.) must be juggled,
try not to match classmates up with one another in early tiers.
3. COLOR ASSIGNMENT. The
scorekeeper will randomly assign “RED” to one player and “WHITE” to the other.
Colors are indicated by tank tops or sashes.
4. SALUTE. Before and after each
match, competitors bow to the referee and then to each other.
5. TIME. One match consists of
two 90-second rounds with a 30-second break in between rounds during which
coaching is allowed. The tournament director may make the rounds shorter
depending on the number of entrants and the time available.
6. STARTING. Competitors begin
by bowing to the referee, then to one another. Referee stands with back to
the audience, on the side of the alley facing the scorekeeper and timekeeper. Opponents
place a foot on the center mark (see “Field,” above): in the first tier, right
foot forward for the first round, left foot forward for the second round; in
the second tier, left foot forward for the first round, etc. When prepared to
begin they make contact with the back of one wrist and touch their opponent’s
elbow with the open palm of the free hand. The referee instructs them to move
either in a horizontal circle or in a standard circle of peng, lu, ji, an.
When both seem ready, the referee says “Time begin” accompanied by a hand
signal. At this signal, the timekeeper starts timing, and the competitors
perform a minimum of two additional revolutions before initiating other
7. CONTINUOUS FLOW. The action
is continuous within each round unless fairness dictates a restart, safety
demands that the action be stopped, or a competitor has committed a violation.
The referee does NOT stop the action when a competitor is off balance, as no
points are awarded for this. Competitors are responsible for resuming play
fairly after an off-balance has occurred. The referee monitors the flow of the
match, making sure that the interaction is safe and watching for violations.
8. WARNING. If the referee sees
a violation, he/she says “stop!” to stop action and timing. If a judge sees a
violation, he/she says “stop” as a signal to the referee, who confirms the
judge’s call by immediately calling “stop” to officially stop the action and
timing. The referee or judge then states the violation and violator (e.g.:
“Double grabbing, RED”). The referee calls for confirmation by the judges
(“Judges confirm?”) The vote of two judges or one judge and the referee is
sufficient to confirm a violation even if the referee did not see or call
the violation. If confirmed, the referee says “confirmed,” restates the
violation, and the scorekeeper makes a note of this.
9. CAUTIONING. The referee may
issue a verbal “caution” which incurs no penalty (as opposed to a “warning”
which incurs a penalty of one point) to one or both competitors in the first
instance of a personal or technical violation. This serves an educational
purpose; but a competitor should not be allowed more than one caution for the
10. OUT OF THE ALLEY. The
referee stops the match if both competitors are beyond the end of the 10-foot
alley or if their orientation has become skewed and restarts them in the
11. RESTARTING. The referee
restarts the match by resetting both competitors on the center mark,
configuring their arms as in the beginning, getting them moving, and saying
“time begin” after which competitors must make one additional circle.
12. JUDGES. Each tier of an
event should be evaluated by the same set of judges. Judges position
themselves, either seated or standing, at good vantage points around the field,
equipped with a pencil, tallies, and clipboard. At the start of each match,
judges write the necessary identifying information on their tallies, and orient
their tallies to match the position of the competitors from the judge’s
perspective. During the match, judges record in some shorthand code (see
“Tally Marks,” above) as many significant interactions as they can.
13. SWITCHING SIDES. Competitors
switch sides of the field at the end of round one. Referee reminds judges to
rotate their tallies to match the respective positions of the competitors for
14. SCORING. At the end of both
round one and round two, each judge assigns a score to each competitor using a five-point
must system. The judge assigns 5 points to the competitor who won the
round, in that judge’s opinion, and 4 points to the loser. The judge may
assign 3 points to the loser if, in that judge’s opinion, the winner completely
dominated the interaction. In the vast majority of rounds, however, the
loser should be given 4 points even if the outcome was clear rather than close.
[There is no standard spread in
the tally that distinguishes these point categories, as the number of
marks on individual tallies may
vary among judges. However, judges must base their decision
on the marks recorded on their
tallies, or on credit given for “positive control” and
“postural dynamics” if marks are
a) At the end of each round, the
referee says: “Competitors stand apart. Judges total your marks” [to
give judges time while they are still looking at the competitors to make sure
they will vote for the correct competitor].
b) The referee then says
“Judges face away. Judges’ scores for RED?” [Referee asks the judges to
face away from the field so as not to be influenced by one another and always
calls scores for RED first.]
c) The three judges respond by
holding a hand upward with all five fingers spread if they believe RED to have
won the round (5 points). If they believe RED lost the round, they may either
extend their arm horizontally with four fingers showing (4 points) or angle the
arm downward at 45° with three fingers showing (3 points).
d) The referee announces the
votes in the following manner: “First judge, 5; second judge, 4; third
e) The referee then calls: “Judges’
scores for WHITE?” and the same procedure is followed.
15. TOTALLING THE SCORES. The
scorekeeper records the points given to the competitors by each judge, deducts
one point for each warning in a round from the competitor’s total score for
that round, and announces each competitor’s total score after each round.
THREES. To reduce the effect of bias or inattention on the part of judges,
scorekeepers will treat 3s in the following manner. If the judges’ scores for
one competitor are 5, 4, 3 for a round, the scorekeeper will record the 3 as a
4. If the judges’ scores are 5, 5, 3 the scorekeeper will record the scores as
5, 5, 4. In other words, a 3 given to a competitor will only be scored if
all three judges scored that competitor as the loser (4, 4, 3 or 4, 3, 3 or
3, 3, 3). Exception: if judges’ scores are 5, 3, 3 the scorekeeper will record
them as is: 5, 3, 3, allowing the 3s to pull down the total score
without changing the vote of the judge that assigned the 5.
16. TIE-BREAKING. Current
tournament push-hands custom does not allow draws. If competitors’ total
points at the end of two rounds are equal, the majority of votes cast for
winner over both rounds breaks the tie. If this is also a tie, a third
tie-breaking round is held. In this round, the win goes to the competitor with
the greater number of points unless points are tied, in which case it goes to
the competitor who received two “5s.”
may be made on the front of the body from the collarbone down and from the
iliac crests (top of the hip bones) up; on the back from the base of the neck
to the hips, and anywhere on the arms. Contact to the head, neck, hip joints,
groin area, or legs is illegal.
administers a “warning” and one point is subtracted from the competitor’s total
score for that round. Three warnings in a match result in
1. Using flagrant force [called
by the referee, not by individual judges]
2. Grabbing the opponent’s
3. Double grabbing (gripping the
opponent with both hands)
4. Holding (gripping the
opponent with one or both hands to prevent loss of balance)
5. Arm entrapment (a milder form
of joint locking, see “Serious Personal Violations”)
6. Throwing or tripping
7. Contacting an illegal target
8. Endangering oneself (as by
holding the head down and forward so that it is difficult for the opponent to
avoid making contact with it)
9. Charging (taking a rapid
series of steps so as to overwhelm an opponent. In limited step, single shuffle
steps are permitted, initiated by either the front or rear foot and followed by
the opposite foot. Single shuffle steps must be separated by at least a two
10. Reversing the stance or
stepping outside the alley to gain an advantage (a competitor who
inadvertently reverses stance should not receive a warning, but should be
penalized for “loss of equilibrium” on individual judges’ tallies)
SERIOUS PERSONAL VIOLATIONS. Committing one results
1. Striking, hitting, punching
2. Jerking or pulling forcibly
3. Using the head to attack
4. Using the legs, knees, or feet
5. Twisting or locking the joints
(grappling or qin na)
6. Using pressure points
7. Pulling hair or beard
8. Violent attacks to illegal
9. Using any technique determined
to cause injury to the opponent
10. Unsportsmanlike conduct
TECHNICAL VIOLATIONS. Referee administers a “warning”
and one point is subtracted from the competitor’s total score for that round.
Three warnings in a match result in disqualification.)
1. Not following the instructions
of the referee
2. Not completing the mandatory
3. Receiving coaching during the
DISQUALIFICATION. Competitors will be
disqualified for committing three Personal and/or Technical Violations, or one
Serious Personal Violation. The inability to avoid these violations indicates
a competitor’s unreadiness to participate in a public demonstration of
taijiquan skills using these guidelines. Any competitor may be disqualified if
the referee in consultation with the judges feels a competitor’s behavior poses
a safety risk.
DIVISIONS. There will be men’s and
women’s divisions, and various weight categories. The following are rough
guidelines; actual categories will be determined on-site based on the pool of
Lower weight: under 150 Lower
weight: under 130
Mid weight: 150 to 174 Mid
Heavy weight: 175 to 199 Upper
weight: over 160
Superheavy weight: 200 and over
MEDALS. A GOLD medal is awarded to
the winner of each division, SILVER to the runner up. BRONZE medals may be
awarded to the losers of the two semifinal matches as if they were tied for
third place. If BRONZE is being awarded only for third place, another match
between the two competitors who lose in the semifinals would need to be held.
Part 3: TWO-PERSON BAREHAND SET EVENT
event is for two players performing choreographed empty hand (not weapons)
taijiquan movements and utilizing taijiquan principles.
Time. The set must be longer than 2
minutes, with no upper time limit. A bell will be rung at two minutes.
Standard deductions by the chief judge for under time, re-performing, and
incomplete routines are the same as for solo routines.
Evaluators will score performances based on the following criteria:
1. Participants conform to
taijiquan’s postural principles (this is a composite impression, although
judges may direct comments to each player separately).
2. Interaction is alert and
lively; players seem to be responding to each other in the moment, rather than
merely performing a mechanical routine (“ting jin”).
3. Partners maintain appropriate
distance or spacing (movements not cramped or impinged, nor stretched or
separated (“zou jin”).
4. Partners maintain contact and
adhere throughout the routine in conformity with applications unless a break is
clearly appropriate to the intent of a move. Quality of touch is sticky and
soft, not jarring (“nian jin”).
5. Partners blend
well, and movements are continuous and well-coordinated: each move supplies the returning energy for the next move in a smooth,
well-defined fashion (“hua jin”), yet the intention of movements
is clear, and applications are energetic (“fa jin”).
6. The movements are
characteristic of taijiquan, and are performed at a pace that allows
competitors to illustrate taijiquan principles and energies (neither too fast
nor too slow).
Protocol. Participants bow to the chief
judge from opposite sides of the field, and after being acknowledged will move
directly into starting positions without hesitation or adjustment. At the
beginning of their performance, partners bow to one another and timing begins.
At the conclusion of their routine, partners bow to one another (at which point
timing will end), walk out of the field together, and await their score at the
edge of the field. When they have received their final score, participants
will bow again to the chief judge.
will be judged using the scoring range for advanced level performances:
8.0-9.5. Partners will also receive evaluations from each evaluator.